Thursday, January 21, 2010

TEACHING BY USING STORY TELLING METHOD







By
HILDA NURUSSANIYAH
07221210703

















ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM
TEACHING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
IBN KHALDUN UNIVERSITY BOGOR
2010



INTRO DUCTION
In teaching learning process so many method can use the teachers for students. We as teacher have to choice the good method in order to suitable for student that could be fluent in and pleasant so as the image of English has been did not frighten again for the students from various stages. Learning English is one subject which that was frightened for students. For this teaching I try to choice teaching learning by telling story method. Everyone loves to listen to stories. There is hardly anyone among us who has not heard a story during our childhood. Stories keeps children engaged and let them feel that they are also participating in the process of telling story. Language learning, any learning for that matter, happens when children are engaged in meaning making activities. If story telling is made into an interesting experience and fun filled activity where the listeners also participate in telling, guessing, manipulating, it could be a joyous learning experience.
Story telling is an effective strategy to help students obtain oral language proficiency. In instructed language learning situations where the exposure to English is only in school like in a majority of schools, stories and telling story will serve the purpose of not simply promoting listening skills, but will also develop oral language proficiency. The following processes could be of use when we attempt to help children enrich their oral skills through story telling. Here children move from being mere listeners of stories to beginning storytellers in an interactive way. This is only suggestive and need not be seen in the linear way it is given.
We can start students telling stories along with teacher’s story telling sessions. Prepare the students well with clear instruction and clarification before the start of any story telling session. The challenge facing the nonnative instructor is make his or her cultural uniqueness an asset instead of a liability. If nonnative speakers can never be fully accepted by American students because of their accent and different communication styles, they can employ teaching styles and methods that showcase their strong points. One teaching method especially useful to the nonnative speaker is story telling. Story telling allows the instructor to connect with his or her students through pathos, logos and ethos.
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
New experiences are most valuable when there are also opportunities to create new stories. How learners talk about their experiences indicates what they are learning and how the experience is affecting their development. Telling stories is the 'method' that we naturally use to tell others about our experiences. There are, of course, many ways in which a facilitator can intervene in this 'natural' process - and there are many good reasons for doing so.
Both 'story-making' and 'story-telling' can be the key to learning from experience. These processes can be enhanced by a variety of 'story-based' reviewing methods. 30 such methods are described in this section. But given that learning through stories has been happening throughout human evolution. We should try to use story-based techniques that help people to develop the kinds of stories that lead back into their experiences and throw light on their experiences - stories that draw out the power and the meaning and the learning.
The earliest forms of storytelling are thought to have been primarily oral combined with gestures and expressions. Rudimentary drawings scratched onto the walls of caves may be forms of early storytelling for many of the ancient cultures. The Australian Aboriginal people painted symbols from the stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral narrative, music, rock art and dance. Ephemeral media such as sand, leaves, and the carved trunks of living trees have also been used to record stories in pictures or with writing.
The evolution of technology has changed the tools available to storytellers. With the advent of writing, the use of actual digit symbols to represent language, and the use of stable, portable media stories were recorded, transcribed and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed, or inked onto wood or bamboo, ivory and other bones, pottery, clay tablets, stone, palm-leaf books, skins (parchment), bark cloth, paper, silk, canvas and other textiles, recorded on film and stored electronically in digital form. Complex forms of tattooing may also represent stories, with information about genealogy, affiliation and social status.
Traditionally, oral stories were committed to memory and then passed from generation to generation. However, in the most recent past, written and televised media has largely surpassed this method communicating local, family and cultural histories.
There was research tested the storytelling method of dream interpretation (TSM), which expands on previously established methods of interpretation by adding an additional step that involves creating a story after word association is completed. Two studies tested the method, the efficacy of the method, and assessed dreamer discovery. Study 1 revealed a significant relationship between word association and discovery and between the story that was created and discovery. Furthermore, word association significantly predicted discovery in Block 1, but the story added to the prediction of discovery, above word association alone, in Block 2.
When testing with a control group, there was a significant difference between the group who interpreted a dream with TSM and those who used the method with association alone. Results reveal a significant difference between the groups, indicating that discovery, insight, and bridging to waking-day circumstances was more likely with TSM when participants used their own dream rather than a dream that was not their own. These findings extend previous research and show that TSM is a brief, effective dream technique that shows therapeutic promise. Limitations and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Concluding Once student finish the story - stop! Don't ramble on. Leave their thoughts lingering over it. Don't feel you have to explain everything, or tie together all loose ends. Let them go away thinking about what has been said, and drawing their own meaning from it! Applause is no measure of the effectiveness of a story presentation.
DATA

A. FINDING STORIES
Effective storytelling is a fine and beautiful art. A well-developed and presented story can cut across age barriers and will hold the interest and reach its listeners. Stories will be remembered long after other orations. Knowing and applying the basics of storytelling will strengthen your stories. Teacher s are most welcome to copy and use this document! It is about 6 printed pages long. Teachers might read some of the good books available on how to tell stories as well.
There are many kinds of stories, teacher can work with. It is recommended start with simple folktales, with simple elements. While traditionally stories were learned by listening, the best source today is the children’s department of the Public Library - particularly in the section (J)398. There we will find all sorts of folk and fairy tales, tall tales, trickster stories, etc. Many stories are on the internet as well. As you browse, look for stories that "touch" us. Start with simple stories, then as our experience grows, be sure to explore and branch out.
With time we will probably find many kinds of tales that will interest you personally. All sorts to choose from including: folktales from many countries and cultures, accumulative stories, droll and humorous tales, traditional fairytales in numerous versions, wish (magic) tales, trickster tales, tall tales, myths, legends and hero tales from the sagas and national epics, animal fables, scary stories, urban legends, Bible and religious stories, literary stories. With time and experience we will want to try a variety of stories and perhaps even branch out into telling our own personal stories or giving Improvisational storytelling a try. And be aware of copyrights, it is best to work with traditional folklore or tales in public domain, than to plagiarize a living author or storyteller without their permission. Remember to give credit to sources.

B. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD STORY

• A single theme, clearly defined
• A well developed plot
• Style: vivid word pictures, pleasing sounds and rhythm
• Characterization
• Faithful to source
• Dramatic appeal
• Appropriateness to listeners
Baker and Greene, Storytelling: Art and Technique, pp. 28

C. ADAPTING TO AUDIENCES

The audience has a very important role in storytelling - for their minds are the canvas on which the teller paints his tale. Oral storytelling involves much interaction between teller and hearer. I have observed that our audiences have lost some of the skills to follow a narrated story and see things in their minds. Storytelling has become more difficult. Attention spans are shorter and more demanding, more sophisticated, yet less able to independently imagine or visualize. People seem to need more visual stimulation.
• Take the story as close to them as we can.
• Keep it brief and simple- especially for younger children - pare down to the heart of the story.
• Stimulate their senses so they feel, smell, touch and listen and see vivid pictures.
• Describe the characters and settings, and help them sympathize with the character's feelings.
• Aim our story at the younger ones when telling to a audience of mixed ages

D. PREPARATION

Once you settle on a story, we will want to spend plenty of time with it. It will take a considerable period of time and a number of tellings before a new story becomes our own.
• Read the story several times, first for pleasure, then with concentration.
• Analyze its appeal, the word pictures we want our listeners to see, and the mood we wish to create.
• Research its background and cultural meanings.
• Live with our story until the characters and setting become as real to us as people and places we know.
• Visualize it! Imagine sounds, tastes, scents, colors. Only when we see the story vividly ourselves can you make our audience see it!

Stories paint word pictures and use the sound and rhythm and repetition of words. In developing and learning a story concentrate on its visual and audio aspects: either assemble it into a series of visual pictures like a filmstrip,
or consciously absorb the rhythm and arrangement of the sounds of the words.
Learn the story as a whole rather than in fragments. Master, and then simplify, its structure to a simple outline of scenes. Don't try to memorize it, though we should always know our first and last lines by heart!.
• Map out the story line: The Beginning, which sets the stage and introduces the characters and conflict; the Body, in which the conflict builds up to the Climax; and the Resolution of the conflict. Observe how the action starts, how it accelerates, repetitions in actions and how and where the transitions occur. If simplifying or adapting a story, do not alter the essential story line.
• Absorb the style of the story: To retain the original flavor and vigor, learn the characteristic phrases which recur throughout the story. Observe the sentence structure, phrases, unusual words and expressions.
Practice the story often - to the mirror, our cat, driving in the car, with friends, or anyone who will listen. Even when telling an old and familiar story, you must use imagination and all the storyteller's skills to make it come alive. Use your imagination to make the story come alive as you prepare. Stories are more interesting when there is animation and variety in the voice of the teller. A Storyteller’s skills include: emphasis, repetition, transition, pause and proportion.
• Dialog should make use of different voices for different characters and using the Storytelling "V" - where we will shift your facing (or posture) as the dialog switches from character to character.
• Use your voice to create the atmosphere or tension as the story progresses.
• Use gestures and facial expressions add much to the visualization of the story. Be sure they are appropriate and natural. Practice them!
• Pacing involves both the volume and rate at which we speak, and the progression of the action in the story. Dialog slows a story's pace down, while narrating action speeds it up.
• Repetition and Exaggeration have always been basic elements of story telling.
Experience will hone these skills, and when - and how - to use them most effectively.
Some_attention_keepers:
Many factors affect the attention of our listeners. A storyteller always needs to be sensitive to his audience and may need to regain their attention before continuing.
• Involvement or participation. Use volunteer(s) from the audience in our story. Or have the audience participate in hand motions or making sound effects. Or responding with "chants" or refrains
• A distinct change in our pace, voice, or mood.
• An unusual or unexpected twist in the narration.
• Throw-away lines or asides work well as does comic relief.




ANALYSIS
Storytelling is best done in a relaxed atmosphere free of distractions. The audience ought to be comfortable and close. Candle light and campfires are ideal situations for telling stories, but often impractical. The teller needs to give careful attention to the setting before hand - and be prepared to rearrange a room to bring his hearers closer, or use a backdrop or hangings to create atmosphere - especially in classroom settings. Props, costumes, or some getting acquainted patter may also help in getting and keeping attention and creating a mood.
We can use storytelling by using four skills depend on the situation of students and atmosphere of place.
A. LISTENING SKILL
 Storytelling helps the students to listen well, whether the students understand or no from that story.
B. SPEAKING SKILL
 Basically from the story which stored the students can take character from players each take on a personal of a character in the story, and have particular skills and abilities then use the role-playing game.
Role-playing Games (RPG) began with the creation of Dungeon and Dragons, and have proliferated into a vast number of publications designed to create adventures in every conceivable realm of time and space and fantasy. Basically the players each take on a persona of a character in the story, and have particular skills and abilities, they make decisions and act as the game unfolds.. A game master runs the game loosely - guiding the characters through imaginary settings and events and confrontations with non-player characters, and referees the game.. Actions and conflicts are resolved with frequent dice rolling and the use of books full of maps, charts, creatures, and other rules. Since they take place in imaginary worlds, there may be magical and other unreal elements. Because of this, some religious people have labeled the games as "satanic" influences. In some ways, RPG's create or use stories as a framework, but usually the storytelling suffers from the frequent dice rolling and haggling about rules, and games may go on and on without a climax or resolution. Still RPG's have some potential for creating stories especially if they are not overburdened with dice rolling and consulting of the rule books.
 Students also can retell story from story which stored by teacher
C. WRITING SKILL
 Writing skill helps the students to write their own story.
 From grammatical students know from the genre of the text such as recount text that usually use simple past tense.
D. READING SKILL
 Students read the story and understand the contain from that story and can retell well then can answer the questions of tasks.
 Students know kind of genre from the text
Storytelling traditionally begins with a "Once upon a time..." opening. and then a storyteller’s silent pause to gather his thoughts. The traditional openings, of which there are many (often with responses from the audience), were "rituals" that served as a signal that the teller was suspending "time and space" as we know it and transporting the audience to a world of imagination and play. They identified the teller and established the audience’s commitment to accept for the moment that imaginary world and its "rules". Similar "rituals" also signal the end of the story and their return to reality. Many adults today have forgotten these "rules of the game." There are online lists of Beginnings and Endings.
Improvisational and participation storytelling The art of improvisational storytelling is one that true storytellers need to cultivate and frequently practice. When I have told Improve stories - they have often been the highlight of the program. I suspect it is because all telling is a partnership between tale teller and tale listener, and people love to participate. I suspect that the masters of storytelling all have learned this art - of involving their listeners in the creation of a tale. A seminar I attended suggested some basic rules:
1. Solicite from the audience some basic elements - a Character, a Place, a Mission.
2. Then begin telling, from time to time (frequently) pausing to allow the audience to add suggestions - objects, places, characters etc. to the story. Once you accept something from the audience - it must continue as part of the story.
3. Draw on all the senses with your narration. Describe the scenes. Let feelings flow from your characters.
4. As you build your tale, keeping in mind the elements of a story and its unfolding plot, always pushing towards "danger", or building tension into the tale. Here knowledge of folklore and traditional stories comes in very handy.
5. Be imaginative and creative - go for surprises and unusual twists.
6. Finally bring the story to an appropriate climax and conclusion. (Usually the re-incorporating the earlier events, objects, places and characters will give you a direction in which to go. This is the hardest part - getting out of the story, once you have gotten into it - it is also the element that makes Improve telling so much fun!)
Using Storytelling games to help student’s master communication, learn about language, and practice thinking skills with the expert guidance of professional storyteller and educator Doug Lipman. Storytelling games are a fun and exciting way to explore places, periods, and peoples, and even to practice math and science. The author provides step-by-step methods for adapting and using the story games to meet the needs of specific groups. He explains how to teach each game, control the group without decreasing energy, and even how to get reluctant players to contribute.
There are all sorts of activities one can do with these cards, largely depending on the numbers of participants. Form small groups. Put some cards face down on the table. First person turns one up and begins to tell a story incorporating the picture. When they feel they have told enough, the next person turns up the next card, lays it along side the first and continues the same story but incorporating the new picture. And so on. It works amazingly well, largely due perhaps to the quality of the pictures. But this is only one activity. There are lots more and soon we find our own variations.
Types of stories can we tell on our blog
1. Personal Discovery Stories – tell how you discovered a lesson. These stories show your readers how similar you are to them and also might give some practical advice on how they might learn from your experience.
2. Stories as Analogies and Illustrations – tell a story that on the surface has nothing to do with your topic but which illustrates a principle that is relevant.
3. Success Stories – tell how you achieved something. These stories can be inspirational and motivating for your readers.
4. Failure Stories – I find that these stories are incredibly powerful – particularly if you are able to show some lessons learnt through a failure.
5. Tell Someone Else’s Story – sharing the journey of someone else and how/what they learned can be effective
6. How I did it Stories – these practical stories can be effective because they talk your readers through a process in a relatable way
7. Biographies – pick a key person in your niche and tell your readers that person’s story – pulling out useful parts that can be applied and used to enhance your readers lives.
8. Autobiographies – tell your own story from start to finish. I’ve done this a couple of times (example) and find readers really respond well to it. It can also be something to link to from your About Page for further reading.
9. Picture Stories – using images or video can be another great way of communicating a story because it engages the senses in a way that text can’t (similarly – audio posts/podcasts can do this too).
10. Case Studies – quite often pulling apart someone else’s experience in a case study can be a powerful way to connect with readers. Similarly you can use your own story, or the story of a project, brand or company that you had something to do with can be useful.
11. Fiction – if well written a made up and imaginative story can be a good way to lead into a post. You’ll probably want to come clean about the fact that it’s not true though
12. Reader Stories – ask your readers to tell you their stories/experiences on a topic. You might kick things off with a short one of your own but then quickly hand it over to others to share.
13. Collective Stories – sometimes telling the story of a group of people, industry, niche etc can be very powerful. This might be presented as a ‘history of….’ your niche/industry which chronicles key developments over time. These pieces can almost become reference material for others in your industry.
14. Imagine If…. Stories – another type of story that I’ve seen used well on occasion is one where you get your reader to imagine a hypothetical scenario that they are in. Here’s an example of this where I told a story in the 2nd person (with YOU the reader as the main character). These posts can be particularly useful for getting readers to FEEL something












CONCLUSION SUGGESTION
CONCLUSION
Story telling is an effective strategy to help students obtain oral language proficiency. In instructed language learning situations where the exposure to English is only in school like in a majority of schools, stories and telling story will serve the purpose of not simply promoting listening skills, but will also develop oral language proficiency. The following processes could be of use when we attempt to help children enrich their oral skills through story telling. Here children move from being mere listeners of stories to beginning storytellers in an interactive way. This is only suggestive and need not be seen in the linear way it is given. We can use storytelling by using four skills depend on the situation of students and atmosphere of place.
SUGGESTION

Story telling is an effective strategy to help students obtain oral language proficiency. In instructed language learning situations where the exposure to English is only in school like in a majority of schools, stories and telling story will serve the purpose of not simply promoting listening skills, but will also develop oral language proficiency, reading skill and writing skill. Then the teacher have to choice the good story to make students can interesting by story.











BIBLIOGRAPHY

Thornbury, Scoot. How to Teach Speaking.
Lin, Nan. The Of Study Human Communication. 1973.USA. The Bobbs-Merill Company.
Arnold, William E. Communicating Through Behavior.1977. USA. West Publishing Company.
Yorkey, Richard C. Study Skills for Students of English.1982.USA.
Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by principle; an Interactive approach To language Pedagogy. Second Edition New York. Longman Group Ltd.
Bing, Jannet Mueller. 1989. Grammar Guide; English Grammar in context. London. Macmillan Publisher.
www.techinglearning.com
www.google.com

2 comments:

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